Dinosaur-Killing Meteorite Caused Acidification That Led to Mass Extinction

Fossils from 66 million years ago have pointed to a potential link between mass extinction of marine life and ocean acidification.

A study published yesterday by the National Academy of Sciences revealed how the collapse of marine species occurred following a meteorite’s impact that wiped out the dinosaurs. The meteorite increased carbon levels in the atmosphere and altered the chemistry of the Earth’s oceans over time.

Researchers studied marine animals with shells, known as foraminifera, to determine how a spike in carbon levels increased ocean acidification.

Their findings argued that the disappearance of the organisms occurred after pH levels dropped 0.25 unit between 100 and 1,000 years after the meteorite hit. Acidification then intensified.

One of the study’s authors, Ellen Thomas, a senior research scientist in Yale University’s geology and geophysics department, noted how increased ocean acidity raised the risk for extinction of marine organisms with shells.

“If we have more acidic oceans, then on the one hand, it is more difficult, it takes more energy for organisms to make a calcium carbonate shell,” Thomas said.

As chemical changes occur when salt water reacts with carbon dioxide, the pH level falls and ocean acidity levels rise.

NOAA reported that following the Industrial Revolution, the pH levels in oceans dropped by 0.11 unit. That translates to a 30% hike in acidity levels.

NOAA launched its Ocean Acidification Program in 2011 as part of a larger effort to monitor, research and educate the public on the impacts of the changing chemistry of the oceans.

The program has funded multiple research projects along the Gulf of Mexico, in coral ecosystems and in the Southeast.

Emily Osborne, a University Corporation for Atmospheric Research visiting scientist with the NOAA Ocean Acidification Program, explained how the study’s findings coincided with NOAA’s modern-day research on ocean acidification.

“Model projections suggest that if business-as-usual scenarios continue into the future, we might see pH decline on the scale that was observed in this study as a result of that [meteorite] impact,” Osborne said.

Ocean acidification is reversible, but Thomas pointed out that changes in chemistry cannot be altered for thousands of years.

“They are reversible on time scales that are so long that humans are not really interested in that,” Thomas said. “We’re talking reversible on time scales of 10,000 to 100,000 years.”

Published in conjunction with E&E News and Scientific American

Meet ‘The Bee Lady’ Of Capitol Hill

WASHINGTON — On an evening in late March, Jan Day is standing outside her red brick rowhouse in Capitol Hill holding a white helmet fastened with black netting. Day’s 8-year-old airedale terrier, Echo, barks as she strolls past the garden, toward the back of her house.

Neighbors driving by in a white car wave and yell, “Jan and her bees!”

Day beams with pride.

“We used to be known on our block as Echo’s mom and dad, but now I’m also the bee lady,” she says.

By day, Jan Day is the director of client success for Starfish Retention Solutions by Hobsons, an educational technology company. But it’s her after-hours hobby that’s earned her the nickname, and plenty of new friends in her neighborhood.

“People are moving in all the time,” Day said. “It’s amazing how, as soon as someone hears, ‘Oh have you met the bee lady on our block?’ suddenly people are just like ‘Oh I’ve got questions for her.’”

Day’s wooden front door opens up to reveal a flight of hardwood steps that creak as she climbs upstairs to her porch, which is attached to her bedroom. A blue patterned quilt lays neatly on the bed. Outside, nearly 100,000 bees await.

Day throws on a white puffy jacket and zips the hood with a black screen around her face and neck before stepping out onto the porch.

A rusted container billows smoke as Day squeezes the accordion-like handle eight times. The smoke inhibits the communication pheromones that bees use to alert the hive of danger. Then she opens the hives for the first time this spring.

Day slowly pulls out a wooden frame. Bees crawl over the cells with golden honey inside.

When she first started beekeeping, Day wondered if the honey would have “diesel overtones” from the urban environment. She was surprised to find it tastes wonderful.

“Because of the mix of the variety of flowering plants—from tulip poplar to basswood or linden to japanese scholar trees—the quality and quantity of nectar in the city is amazing,” she says.

A few years ago, a longtime Washingtonian beekeeper explained to DCist:

“The foraging material in urban context seems to be a lot more plentiful and diverse than it is in the rural areas. In the District specifically, we have a very green canopy that includes a lot of trees, on the streets and in parks. Trees are great for bees. As the season wanes, a lot of non-native species are here that extend the nectar flow—the nectar availability season. Plus there’s a lack of competition in the urban environment. We don’t have a lot of other competing pollinators, so it makes for a smorgasbord for the bees.”

Beekeeping in the District wasn’t always so straightforward.

While the practice was technically legal, the law was ambiguous enough that many people kept their hives in secret. That changed in 2012, when an omnibus bill more widely legalized the practice.

The legislation established standards for keeping bees and required beekeepers to register their hives with the city’s Department of Energy and Environment. Since 2015, there have been 443 colonies registered with the city, and 104 people are currently keeping bees in the city, according to the department’s records.

Day and her husband, Charles, first attended a beekeepers’ group meeting on the recommendation of a friend, Del Voss, about a year before the law passed. In 2012, the group officially became known as the D.C. Beekeepers Alliance.

The organization now has almost 250 members that gather monthly to share advice about maintaining their hives and listen to experts talk.

Toni Burnham, the president of the D.C. Beekeepers Alliance, says she wants the public to see beekeeping as normal part of the community, rather than as an eccentric hobby.

“Beekeepers should be a little bit more boring than model railroad people and a little bit less boring than the composters,” Burnham said. “We should just be another one of those groups, a normal part of the city’s DNA.”

That seems to be happening. Day conducted a survey last year to figure out just how much honey is being collected. She found that local beekeepers had harvested about 6,190 pounds of honey—roughly the weight of a Ford Explorer.

Even Second Lady Karen Pence had hives installed at the Naval Observatory in 2017. The Obamas also kept bees at the White House for many years.

With her own hives thriving, Day started her own honey and candle making company, Second Story Honey, in 2017. She sells tea lights, honey jars, owl-shaped candles, and other products online. On nice days, she’ll bring out a card table and sell her products outside her house—just feet from the hives.

Seven years after becoming a beekeeper, Day has been instrumental in mentoring and encouraging other people to take up the hobby.

One of them is her co-worker, Amy Reitz, who enlisted Day’s help at a holiday party in convincing her wife to let her buy some bees.

Now she’s going into her third year of beekeeping. Day has been a support system through tough times, like when Reitz lost her hive.

“Jan was really helpful in being able to say, like, ‘everybody loses their bees,’ ‘I’ve lost bees,’ right? And it’s a learning process,” Reitz said. “I think talking through her kind of really helped me regain the confidence.”

But Day says one of the reasons she loves the hobby is because there’s still so much to learn.

“I find beekeeping ever fascinating because scientists are learning something almost every week about bee behavior, whether its a social aspect of their lives, biological aspects of their lives, an economic impact that they have,” she says. “There’s so much that we still haven’t learned about how this superorganism works and behaves, and I just love that.”

Day also serves on the D.C. Beekeepers Alliance Swarm Squad, which is on call in the spring when swarms of honey bees search for a new home. The trick is to capture them in a box that includes the queen.

On Sunday afternoon last year, she and Voss were called to Dupont Circle Day put a netted veil over her short brown hair and climbed into a white baggy suit that resembled something out of a “Ghostbusters” movie. She climbed 30 feet up a tree and retrieved a swarm of bees that had entranced the neighborhood.

Dozens of people gathered around Day and Voss as they put the honey bees into a copier paper box and shut the lid. People stuck around to chat with the pair about beekeeping and the significance of the swarm as the honey bees form a new colony.

Day describes it as “just a magical moment combination of saving the bees and being able to talk to all of these people who had lots of questions.”

Published in conjunction with Screen Shot 2019-04-24 at 11.05.06 PM.png

In speech to new U.S. governors, Gov. Tom Wolf shares Pa.’s experience fighting opioid abuse

WASHINGTON — Pennsylvania Gov. Tom Wolf told officials from 33 states and territories Monday that his state’s efforts to reduce one of the highest opioid death rates in the country were built on creating 45 centers to address the mental health and behavioral issues that lead to addiction.

Although the data has not been fully reported from all counties, “It looks like 2018 might be the first year we actually see a decline in opioid deaths in Pennsylvania,” Wolf said in his address to the National Governors Association’s Opioid Summit for New Administrations, a two-day event for state governments and nonprofits across the U.S. to discuss solutions for reducing opioid use and death.

The most recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that in 2017, Pennsylvania had one of the highest rates of deaths related to drug overdose with around 44 deaths per 100,000 people.

Last year, Wolf established an Opioid Command Center comprised of six state agencies that collaborate on how to prevent and reduce opioid use. Wolf’s office also announced the success of 45 state-funded opioid use disorder treatment centers known as the Centers of Excellence.

In a 2018 report, the American Medical Association highlighted Pennsylvania’s success with these centers in addressing mental and behavioral health disorders related to addiction.

Many advisers to governors across the country were in attendance for the opioid summit. Some of those representatives came from Alabama, Alaska, Kentucky, Ohio, Tennessee, New Mexico, Wyoming, and Wisconsin.

Jane Wishner, executive policy adviser for New Mexico’s Health and Human Services Department, asked Wolf what he would have done differently with his experience in expanding Pennsylvania’s opioid treatment services.

Wolf said he would have started his campaign against opioid use disorder sooner.

Lori Criss, director of the Ohio Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services, was grateful that Wolf used the term “substance use disorder suffered.”

“I’ve never heard that,” Criss said. “It’s very compassionate so I want to thank you for that.”

Wolf also noted that governments cannot celebrate the slowdown of the epidemic because other addictive drugs such as methamphetamine and crack cocaine are replacing opioids.

“This is a chronic illness. It’s not something you can take something for and you’re over it,” Wolf said. “It doesn’t work that way. This is a lifelong thing.”

The Democratic governor also said combating the opioid crisis “actually is not a very partisan issue.”

“Republicans and Democrats, liberals and conservatives, all seem to come around this issue in Pennsylvania,” he said.

Published in conjunction with Pennsylvania Capital Star

Zebrafish are making waves for limb regeneration research

WASHINGTON, April 3 — Could humans regrow their limbs? Researchers are considering this possibility as they study the regrowth of tail fins and other organs in zebrafish.

Zebrafish are a member of the minnow family that live in freshwater and are no bigger than two inches in length.

Despite their small size, this fish has changed how scientists and researchers understand treatments for cancer, spinal cord injuries, and potentially the regeneration of limbs in humans.The study of zebrafish heart regeneration has led to conclusions about preventative and reactive measures to tissue breakdown in the human heart.

In 2017, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) published its findings on how zebrafish research has influenced basic understandings of human scar tissue in the heart.

Dr. Jon Lorsch is the director of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences at NIH and he said zebrafish studies are shaping the future science of regenerative medicine. Lorsch said scientists and doctors are questioning the possibility of human limb regeneration through zebrafish studies.

“If we could figure out how to turn those pathways back on in a human could we actually allow someone who has lost a limb to eventually regenerate the limb?” Lorsch asked. “That’s the dream.”

According to NIH data published in 2016, grant funding applications for zebrafish studies have increased overall compared to other model organism research.

Dr. Eric Glasgow is a researcher and director of Georgetown University’s Zebrafish Shared Resource, a database of findings related to the study of zebrafish and human diseases. He has studied zebrafish for over 20 years and he didn’t think limb regeneration was a remote possibility until now.

Glasgow said the similarities in the cell types of zebrafish and humans have helped researchers test different treatments for diseases and focus on the regeneration of human tissues.

“When you give these guys drugs, or you manipulate a gene you actually get the effect on the whole organism that reflects what you see in humans,” Glasgow said.

Despite these new findings for human health, animal rights groups are concerned that zebrafish are harmed in the process of research.

Vice president of laboratory investigations cases at the People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, Dr. Alka Chandna, said that the overcrowding of zebrafish in tanks has a major impact on their social well-being and individual longevity.

“Zebrafishes are social animals and so this kind of overcrowding can make a fish depressed they can become aggressive, certainly any type of social cohesion entirely falls apart,” Chandna said.

Chandna also noted the lack of research dedicated to how zebrafish are impacted in regenerative studies. She said the similarities of human and zebrafish genes are not a sound basis for scientific research on these animals.

“The differences are so great in the physiology that you really have to question the scientific integrity of using these animals in the first place,” Chandna said.

For Glasgow, zebrafish are the future of this type of research and there are no alternatives to using them.

“It comes down to is it valuable to animal research,” Glasgow said. “My opinion is there’s absolutely no substitute to an organism.”

Published in conjunction with United Press International

Supreme Court hears arguments on alleged discrimination in jury selection


Supreme Court Justices John Roberts, Elena Kagan, Neil Gorsuch and Brett Kavanaugh listen during President Donald Trump’s State of the Union address in February. The justices heard oral arguments Wednesday relating to a murder conviction in Mississippi. File Photo by Doug Mills/UPI | License Photo



March 20 (UPI) — WASHINGTON — The Supreme Court heard oral arguments Wednesday about racial discrimination in jury selection for a case that could reverse a conviction for a Mississippi man on death row.

The justices considered whether purposeful racial discrimination played a role in the exclusion of jurors for a murder trial in a Mississippi. The case, Flowers vs. Mississippi, centers on whether the prosecuting attorney intentionally eliminated jurors based on race and, as a result, created an unfair trial for defendant Curtis Flowers, who was eventually convicted and sentenced to death.

Wednesday’s oral arguments relied on the 1985 Supreme Court decision in Batson vs. Kentucky, which held excluding jurors based on race violates a person’s Sixth Amendment right to a fair trial and Fourteenth Amendment right to equal protection under the law.

“The history of this case is very troubling,” Justice Samuel Alito said.

Tried six times for his alleged role in a 1996 murder of four workers at a furniture company in Winona, Miss., Flowers was convicted in 2010 and sentenced to death. He still maintains his innocence.

Prosecutor Doug Evans, who is white, has led the case against Flowers, who is black, for all six trials. Evans has been accused of abusing his legal power of peremptory challenge to dismiss black jurors from having a seat in the sixth trial.

Flowers’ attorney, Sheri Lynn Johnson, argued that the history of this case has to be reconsidered because the aggressiveness of Evans’ questions toward black jurors indicated racial bias.

Chief Justice John Roberts noted that the “case is unusual because of the extensive history,” but he questioned whether there was any legal precedent that allows for limitations on considering history.

The four left-leaning justices on the court, Elena KaganSonia SotomayorRuth Bader Ginsburg and Stephen Breyer, focused on the distinction between a black and white juror in the case.

Evans struck Carolyn Wright, who is black, from the jury because she had been sued by the furniture company and worked with Flowers’ father at the Winona Walmart store. Pamela Chesteen, a white juror, was a bank teller in Winona where the Flowers family were customers.

“Isn’t the relationship of a bank teller different than someone who is a coworker?” Ginsburg asked.

Sotomayor said she was most interested in the comparison between Wright and Chesteen given their similarities in knowing the defendant’s family.

Kagan agreed and also pointed out that “the numbers themselves are staggering” when looking at the difference between the larger amount of questions posed to black jurors than white jurors.

This is the second time the Supreme Court has considered the Flowers case. In 2016, the justices granted the petition for a writ of certiorari and rejected the decision of the Mississippi State Supreme Court, ordering the lower court to re-examine the case based on the ruling in Foster vs. Chatman.

In Foster, the high court ruled that the defendant met the burden of proof established in Batson vs. Kentucky since there was physical evidence of the prosecutor’s notes about only striking black jurors.

Justice Brett Kavanaugh questioned how Batson would be applied given the history of the number of black jurors stricken from the trial court.

When the plaintiff’s attorney, Jason Davis, agreed that consideration of history is important to this case, Kavanaugh pointed to a prosecutor’s challenge to a juror’s partiality to the “defendant because of their shared race” as discussed in Batson.

In a rare move, Justice Clarence Thomas posed a question to the defense at the end of oral arguments. Thomas asked whether the defense had exercised any peremptory challenges that threw out white jurors in this case. The last time Thomas spoke during oral arguments was in 2016.

Even if the Supreme Court ruled in favor of Flowers, the defendant’s conviction would be reversed but he could still face a seventh trial for the murders in Mississippi.

Published in conjunction with UPI Logo

Biological and chemical weapons: the other threats from North Korea


When it comes to North Korea, all eyes are on nuclear weapons, but the lack of attention toward chemical and biological capabilities weakens defense against potential attacks, according to experts in the field.


After the breakdown of talks between the United States and Pyongyang last week, the future of not only nuclear weapons but biological and chemical weapons is uncertain.


“The real terrorists threats, primarily when you talk about weapons of mass destruction — nuclear, chemical and biological — are chemical weapons, biological diseases and radioactive materials,” said Paul Walker, vice chairman of the board of directors for the Arms Control Association.

Walker, who has worked in the international security field for more than 40 years, said chemical and biological agents are the biggest threats facing society today.


In the new Congress, lawmakers have paid particular attention to nuclear weapons. The House Armed Services Committee is holding a hearing on nuclear deterrence policies today and their counterparts on the Senate Armed Services Committee held a similar hearing on nukes last week. Neither panel plans to hold a hearing on chemical or biological weapons in the near future, according to committee staff members.


Jenifer Mackby, a senior fellow at the Federation for American Scientists, said that while the image of the mushroom cloud at Hiroshima and Nagasaki makes people fear the use of nuclear weapons, there is little public knowledge about biological weapons.


New GAO report evaluates climate change and cybersecurity policies at the federal level

Climate change, cyberinfrastructure, and personal security clearances dominated Wednesday’s House Oversight and Reform Committee hearing.

The Government Accountability Office on Wednesday released a biennial report assessing the waste, fraud, abuse and mismanagement of government operations. The 2019 report identified 35 areas inside the government that required reevaluation, more than half of which are unchanged since the 2017 report.

Chairman Elijah Cummings, D-Md., zeroed in on the $13.6 million in taxpayer money that President Trump has spent traveling to and from his vacation home in Mar-a-Lago.

Ranking member Jim Jordan, R-Ohio, said Trump’s behavior is not uncommon or unlike that of prior administrations.

“The perception is that this is the only time it’s happened that’s someone traveled to their home or vacation spot,” Jordan said. “But previous presidents have done this time and time again.”

Cummings also criticized the administration for the unusually contentious relationship between White House staffers and the GAO.

Democratic lawmakers focused most of their attention on a section of the report addressing personnel security clearances, in light of recent media reports about Trump taking the unusual step of demanding that his daughter and son-in-law receive clearances despite objections.

Specifically, the report found that “the percentage of executive branch agencies meeting established timeliness objectives for initial secret clearances, initial top secret clearances, and periodic reinvestigations decreased each year from fiscal years 2012 through 2018.”

Rep. Debbie Wasserman Schultz, D-Fla., pressed GAO Director Gene Dodaro on how the president’s actions might endanger national security.

“Obviously, the White House is supposed to set an example for the rest of the government to follow and your report outlines ways in which the administration is already failing to ensure there is background quality,” she said.

Dodaro told lawmakers that background investigations are crucial to ensuring that the wrong information does not fall into the wrong hands.

“This is very important that only the right people in the government have access to the highest, most sensitive information,” Dodaro said.

Other than the White House, some of the most striking issues in the report were related to climate change and cybersecurity infrastructure.

Climate change was cited as a risk to U.S. economic and environmental systems such as disaster relief efforts. The report stated that recent hurricanes, forest fires, flooding and other natural disasters have increased total federal funding for disaster assistance since 2005 to almost $430 trillion.

Rep. Harley Rouda, D-Calif., asked Dodaro how climate change affects national security.

Dodaro said his group does rely on climate change assessments and “numerous studies” that have found that climate change “is producing an economic and environmental risk to the government.”

He said recent hurricanes such as Florence and Michael have cost billions of dollars in damage to military facilities.

“It is affecting DOD’s own operations both domestically and internationally,” Dodaro said. “A lot of their facilities are in coastal areas and with rising sea levels it poses difficulties.”

The report also cited inadequate federal strategy for cybersecurity as a high risk for national security.

When referring to challenges with cybersecurity, Rep. Jody Hice, R-Ga., asked, “What’s the holdup, what’s the issue?”

Dodaro responded that cybersecurity infrastructure is not being addressed by the federal government with a sense of urgency.

“I put cybersecurity on the government-wide high-risk list in 1997,” Dodaro said. “I’ve been on this quest for a long time.”

Other government operations such as the 2020 Census and the opioid crisis were also sighted as high risks in the report.

The GAO added the 2020 Census to the high-risk list in 2017 for escalating costs and inefficient IT systems. The Census Bureau spent $12.3 billion in 2010 and is projected to spend about $15.6 billion in 2020.

In response to the GAO’s suggestions, the Census Bureau has created an action plan to update their software systems to improve management of personal information.

The GAO also noted the agency’s close attention to the opioid crisis. The report detailed that drug overdoses are the leading cause of death in the nation and had an economic cost of more than $500 billion in 2015, according to the Council of Economic Advisors.

Published in conjunction with USA Today Logo

Former Afghani Refugee Gives Back to Community

When he lived outside a metro station in Paris, Shikhali Mirzai received a sleeping bag, tent, and clothes from a student group dedicated to aiding refugees in the city. The kind gesture stayed with the then-22-year-old, who now helps the group distribute similar packages to new arrivals.

“[Many Parisians] think refugees are like terrorists. Some people they don’t like refugees. When I heard they are helping the refugees that is like a surprise for me,” said Mirzai, now 25.

After losing his leg in an attack, Mirzai says he fled Afghanistan in 2016, traveling across Pakistan, Iran, Turkey, Greece, and Italy before arriving in Paris. While in Greece he stayed in the Moria refugee camp on the island of Lesvos, which he said was crowded and closed-off to the outside world like a prison.

“First three months we are 6,000 people to a refugees camp, 6,000 people from every country, families, single people, children, everybody,” Mirzai said.

After three months, Mirzai traveled to the Oinofyta camp near Athens. Mirzai recounted his difficult journey from Greece to Italy, riding for 36 hours under a truck before reaching the border. He said he then spent 15 days in Italy before traveling to Paris with a smuggler.

When Mirzai arrived in Paris, the French police detained him, but after his release he lived among thousands of refugees at the Jaurès metro station.

That’s when he met the one of the founders of Compassion Without Borders, Diana Levaton, who gave him the sleeping bag and a tent.

Levaton recalled the number of tents outside Paris metro stations and said the refugee crisis was too large to ignore.

“You would look over this tent that you almost walked into and you would see a sea of 1,500 tents of people living in the middle of Paris on the street,” Levaton said.

After watching a documentary on the refugee crisis in Europe, Diana and her son, Ben, felt compelled to act and they organized a shoe drive at the American School of Paris. Following the shoe drive, Compassion Without Borders grew into a service club that collects clothes, blankets, and toiletries for distribution to refugees.

Jean-Yerim Baranyanka, 19, has been a part of Compassion Without Borders for the past few years and his membership in the group is personal. His father was from Burundi and his mother was from Senegal, two countries from which migration is common.

“I could have been that person,” Baranyanka said. “My mom could have been the person on the street trying to come to France and Paris to give their son, that could have been me, a better life, a better education.”

The club is also attracting new members who are motivated to make a positive impact.

Tammie van Winden, 16, witnessed the refugee crisis in Budapest, but could not find an outlet at her school to help. After enrolling at the American School of Paris, Winden joined the club this year.

“When I came to this school and I saw that there was a club that helps refugees,” Winden said. “I really wanted to help out and see what I can do and that’s why I joined.”

With the help of Diana and others, Mirzai moved to a room at Place de Clichy and enrolled in a French-language program called THOT, which teaches the language to refugees and asylum seekers.

Mirzai fulfilled his dream of studying political science at the Sciences Po, an internationally recognized research university for the humanities and social sciences. He now helps Compassion Without Borders connect with refugees to distribute collected items.

While speaking with the students during one of their weekly meetings, Mirzai asked why the students were helping refugees despite rising anti-refugee sentiments in Europe.

Sixteen-year-old Reagan Meek said she wants to change the stigma against refugees, adding that it was Mirzai’s story that inspired her to do more in Compassion Without Borders.

“While people say there’s so many people who don’t help refugees, I feel like there’s more people with a big enough heart that do,” Meek. “I’m proud to be in this club to make a contribution.”

As for Mizrai, he now volunteers to help distribute items to refugees and translates information to them about the process of seeking asylum in France.

“I come here, I need to help, someone has helped me,” Mizrai said. “When [refugees] are coming here, they need the help. I need to help them.”

Published in conjunction with Sojourners logo

Activists shifting abortion debate to focus on human rights

WASHINGTON — With the future of abortion rights on the verge of changing like no time since before Roe v. Wade, advocates are presenting new arguments to plead their cases.

Both sides have amped up messaging in an effort to intertwine human rights and abortion since the retirement of Supreme Court Justice Anthony Kennedy and the precarious health and potential retirement of Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg.

In addition, abortion proponents and opponents have strongly reacted to President Trump’s changes to Title X, a federal grant program that provides reproductive health care and birth control to low-income Americans. The new rule would block federal grant funding to family planning facilities, such as Planned Parenthood, which provide abortions.

Americans’ opinions on abortion, though polarized, have remained relatively unchanged since 1995, according to Pew Research Center. In a Pew poll on abortion conducted in September, 58 percent of Americans said abortion should be legal in all or most cases, while 37 percent said it should be illegal in all or most cases.

MoreHow younger generations are leading the abortion debate

Mary Ziegler, a professor at the College of Law at Florida State University, is an expert on the legal history of reproductive rights. Ziegler said the arguments employed by anti-abortion groups have remained mostly consistent since the Roe decision in 1973 with the exception of a shift toward focusing on the cost of abortion to “women, families, parents, partners, the sort of broader culture.”

For abortion advocates, Ziegler said the argument has shifted away from privacy and focused more on human rights in the context of international social justice.

“The language that you often see now is instead of reproductive rights, which would suggest that the government is going to leave you alone to do your own thing,” Ziegler said. “A lot of activists will use the language of reproductive justice.”

Abortion advocacy organizations such as Advocates for Youth and NARAL Pro-Choice America use the hashtags #reproductivejustice and #ReproFreedom to tie human rights to support for abortion rights, specifically.

While most anti-abortion advocates have at least tangentially tied their opposition to religion, groups such as Secular Pro-Life are now crafting arguments based on non-spiritual elements. SPL President Kelsey Hazzard, 30, of Florida, founded the organization 10 years ago when she felt the need for a community that espouses her views. The group, which is open to anyone who does not ascribe religious beliefs to their anti-abortion stance, operates completely online and has a following of over 22,000 on Facebook.

Hazzard said that President Trump’s decision to single out abortion during his State of the Union address earlier this month was a win for the anti-abortion movement but she disagreed with his religious appeal on the issue.

“I wish that he had taken more of a human rights approach to it,” Hazzard said. “But ultimately, obviously, the fact that he is responding to these extreme state-level laws, doing so vocally, doing so in the State of the Union, is really encouraging.”

Abortion messaging has become increasingly targeted toward specific audiences, including specific religious affiliations and members of low-income and/or marginalized communities.

Abortion rights advocates like Dr. Krystal Redman, 32, of Atlanta, Georgia, said women of color and members of the LGBTQ community are typically left out of the broader discussion of abortion rights.

Redman is the executive director of SPARK Reproductive Justice Now, an organization that champions reproductive rights for marginalized communities. The group hosts an annual advocacy day to lobby the Georgia state legislature and recently worked behind-the-scenes to help introduce a bill that would pull $2 million in grant funding from the state budget that goes to Crisis Pregnancy Centers, nonprofits that provide counsel and resources to persuade women not to have abortions. These facilities will provide ultrasounds for women to listen to the heartbeat or provide resources such as free diapers and gas cards to women seeking an abortion.

“When you think about rights, you automatically assume you have the right to make a choice,” Redman said. “A lot of black folks, a lot of people of color, a lot of queer folks, have been marginalized and they don’t have the luxury of making a choice for themselves.”

Religious-affiliated groups have also mentioned human rights as a rationale for their stance on abortion.

Glenn Northern, 50, is the domestic program director of Catholics for Choice in Washington, D.C., which was founded in 1973 as an abortion-rights advocacy organization that broke tradition with the Catholic Church’s anti-abortion doctrine.

Northern’s abortion rights stance is based on a woman’s right to follow her conscience in making the decision whether to have an abortion.

“The women are missing, when we talk about the culture of life,” Northern said. “It includes women too but that is not something that the opposition wants to actually look at with care, look at with compassion, look at with nuance.”

Cecily Routman, 59, of Sewickley, Pennsylvania, is the president of the Jewish Pro-Life Foundation, which began in 2006 as an organization focused on supporting members of the Jewish community who have had an abortion. One of the organization’s programs focuses on healing and is based on the repentance concept of Teshuvah in the Jewish faith.

Routman said she was pleased with Trump’s acknowledgement of the dignity of every person because she is concerned with the dehumanization of life in the womb.

“Just as in Germany, Jews were dehumanized to the place where people didn’t consider us human and so we didn’t have to be protected, so the unborn child has been dehumanized,” Routman said. “It’s been a systematic propaganda for decades now.”

The most recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention shows that the total number of reported abortions in 47 states, Washington, D.C. and New York City was down 24 percent from 842,855 in 2006 to 638,169 in 2015.


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How generations born after Roe v. Wade are leading the country’s abortion debate

WASHINGTON — Younger generations of pro and anti-abortion advocates are digging in their heels and preparing for a long, drawn-out legal battle as President Trump alters access to reproductive care and courts across the country continue to rule on abortion.

This past week Trump released proposed changes to Title X, a federal grant program that allocates funding for reproductive health care and contraceptives to low-income populations. The rule change would cut federal funding to family planning clinics such as Planned Parenthood that provide referrals for abortions.

Younger abortion rights supporters condemn Trump’s recent actions. Leaders ages 14-to-25 are guiding the discussion on sexual and reproductive health care as members of Advocates for Youth, which is based in Washington, D.C. The organization has a network of young people at over 1,200 college campuses and in more than 120 countries.

Julia Reticker-Flynn, 33, is the director of youth organizing and mobilization at Advocates for Youth and works with the group’s “1 in 3 Campaign,” which has over 1,300 published testimonies from women who shared why they did not regret their decisions to have an abortion.

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Reticker-Flynn said young people recognize that the Trump administration’s actions, such as his call for late-term abortion legislation, do not reflect science and the experiences of people seeking an abortion.

“Young people are passionate about supporting their communities,” Reticker-Flynn said. “Abortion access is a part of that effort to ensure that young people can be able to live freely and support their peers in their community.”

Since 1975, the number of young adults supporting the legality of abortion has fluctuated. In a Gallup poll released in May, a majority of 18- to 49-year-olds said abortion should be legal under “any circumstances” and under “certain circumstances.”

For 18- to 29-year-olds, 42 percent said abortion should be legal under “certain circumstances” while 37 percent said abortion should be legal under “any circumstances.” For 30- to 49-year-olds those numbers are 50 percent and 30 percent, respectively.

Although leaders in the anti-abortion youth group, Students For Life of America, in Fredericksburg, Virginia, said more young people are becoming part of the pro-life generation.

Students For Life of America conducted a poll of 18- to 34-year-olds in January, which showed that 7 in 10 millennials support limits on abortion through certain policies and 51 percent said that they opposed Roe v. Wade with the understanding that the decision permits abortion in all 9 months of pregnancy.

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Matt Lamb, 25, is the director of communications for Students For Life of America, which has 1,200 groups across the country in high schools and college campuses with young people ranging from 14- to 25-years-old. He said his generation better understands the realities of abortion through the use of technology.

“This generation has the benefit of much better-advanced technology and so they can see a high-quality sonogram,” Lamb said. “Also, with new media it’s easier for them to go and they can see videos that we put out.”

President and founder of Secular Pro-Life, Kelsey Hazzard, 30, agrees with the assessment that the younger generation is using technology to speak out against abortion.

Hazzard started Secular Pro-Life as a 20-year-old at the University of Miami because she wanted to be a part of a non-religious anti-abortion group. The organization congregates solely online and has an active social media presence with more than 29,000 followers on Facebook and Twitter combined.

“It’s not the fact that we’re online that brings us a younger audience,” Hazzard said. “It’s the fact that we are younger that puts us online.”

Dr. Krystal Redman, 32, of Atlanta, Georgia, works with young people as the executive director of SPARK for Reproductive Justice NOW, an organization focused on advocating for people in marginalized communities to freely make decisions about their gender and bodies.

The organization has a leadership program for queer and transgender youth of color and ally youth of color who want to be a part of the reproductive justice movement.

“Without tackling or addressing the oppressions that are specifically anchored on people of color, queer people, and black folks, then you’re not really getting to the root of reproductive health or rights,” Redman said.

While young leaders are taking action in the abortion debate, people born before Roe are responding to how the Trump administration’s recent actions against abortion affect future generations.

Dr. Willie Parker, 56, is an abortion provider in Birmingham, Alabama, where access to reproductive health services is restricted. Parker said the restrictions to abortion access send a negative message to women of all ages.

“These laws tell women that they are less important than the pregnancies that they carry,” Parker said. “It tells women that their deepest hopes and dreams and their interests can always be subordinated to the will of powerful men.”

Georgette Forney, 58, of Sewickley, Pennsylvania, is pleased with the Trump administration’s stance on abortion. She is the co-founder of the Silent No More Awareness Campaign, which has provided an online community for over 2,700 testimonies from women and men who regret having an abortion.

Forney said young people who were born after the Roe decision in 1973 are more aware of the dangers of abortion because they have faced the reality that they could have been aborted. One of those young people is Forney’s 29-year-old daughter.

“My daughter when she was eight years old found out about my abortion and she was horrified and she looked at me and she said you mean mommy you killed a baby,” Forney said. “That’s a reality she has lived with since she was eight years old.”

The Westchester Coalition for Legal Abortion-Choice Matters in White Plains, New York, has existed since 1972 and continues to advocate for the right to choose as a privacy matter.

Catherine Lederer-Plaskett is the president of the group and since 2004 she has worked on passing the Reproductive Health Act in New York, which legalized abortions after 24 weeks in the instance where the life or health of a woman is threatened.

Lederer-Plaskett said the passage of the Reproductive Health Act has been essential to protecting women’s reproductive rights but abortion cases in other states are undermining the legal standing of Roe.

“Roe v. Wade will be gutted. People talk about it being overturned,” Lederer-Plaskett said. “People should be talking about it being gutted.”


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